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Library & Resources

This page is a replica of the original version of the website, and will be updated soon to include interactive tools to help you sort through all available resources, by name, type of file, date, etc.. (Click the icon below to get Adobe Reader for free.)

The Institute is continuously updating this Spectrum research section. You are cordially invited to submit your published or unpublished Spectrum articles for consideration of inclusion on this page. For each article, designate: Author(s), Year, Title, Periodical Name, Volume/Issue, Pages and Country of Author(s). Click here to email your article information, and include a link of the article in Adobe PDF format. If your article is listed below, and we do not have a linked PDF file, please submit a link to the file.

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  • Maina, M. P. (1997). Effects of divergent production style H initiative game activities on fifth-grade students use of critical thinking skills in physical education. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. The Florida State University. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mariani, T. (1970). A comparison of the effectiveness of the command method and the task method of teaching the forehand and backhand tennis strokes. Research Quarterly. 41, 171-174. (United States).
  • McBride, R. (1989). Teaching critical thinking skills in the psycho-motor learning learning environment - A possibility or a passing phase. The Physical Educator. 46(4), 170-173. (United States). [View PDF]
  • McBride, R. (1991). Who says you don't have to think in gym? Fostering critical thinking in physical education. Texas Association HPERD Journal. February 1991, 19-20, 47. (United States). [View PDF]
  • McBride, R.E. (1992). Critical thinking - An overview with implications for physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. 11, 112-125. (United States).
  • McBride, R., Gabbard, C., Miller, G (1990). Teaching critical thinking skills in the psychomotor domain. The Clearing House Psychomotor Domain. 63, 197-201. (United States). [View PDF]
  • McCleary, E. (1974). A comparison of the task and problem solving styles in teaching kindergarten and first grade students. Unpublished manuscript, Temple University, Philadelphia. (United States).
  • McCullick, B., & Byra, M. (2002). Spectrum teaching styles and the national standards for physical education: Introduction. Teaching Elementary Physical Education. 13(2), 6-7. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mellor, W. (1992). The Spectrum in Canada and Great Britain. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. 63(1), 47. (Canada). [View PDF]
  • Metzler, M. (1983). On styles. Quest. 35, 145-154. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Milosis, D., & Papaioannou, A. (2007). Effects of interdisciplinary teaching on multiple goals, intrinsic motivation, self-concept and school achievement. In J. Liukkonen (Ed.),. Psychology for physical educators. (pp 175-198). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. (United States).
  • Mizios, D., & Digelidis, N. (2007). Motivational climate, intrinsic-extrinsic motivation and teaching styles: the reciprocal and self-check style. Paper presented at the 12th European congress of sport psychology, Chalkidiki, Greece. (Greece).
  • Mizios, D., Digelidis, N., Goudas, M., & Papaioannou, A. (2007). The reciprocal and the self-check teaching styles in high school. (Greece).
  • Moore, R.E. (1996). Effects of the use of two different teaching styles of fifth grade students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, East Texas State University, Texas. (United States).
  • Morgan, K. (2003). Teaching styles, progression and variety in athletics lessons. British Journal of Teaching Physical Education. 34(1), 12-14. (Great Britain). [View PDF]
  • Morgan, K., Kingston, K. & Sproule, J. (2005). Effects of different teaching styles, on the teacher behaviours that influence motivational climate in physical education. European Physical Education Review. 11(3), 257-286. (Great Britain). [View PDF]
  • Mosston, M. (1965a). From command to discovery, styles of teaching in physical education. Speech NCPEAM conference, December 30th. (United States).
  • Mosston, M. (1965b). Teaching styles – a spectrum. Speech to NCPEAM conference, December 30th. (United States).
  • Mosston, M. (1966a). Teaching physical education. Columbus, OH: Merrill. (United States).
  • Mosston, M. (1966b). The integration of a style of teaching with the structure of the subject matter. Paper presented to the National College Physical Education Association of Men, San Diego, CA. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mosston, M. (1967). Alternatives in the design and the teaching of movement (an outline). Speech at the Pennsylvania State AHPER, December 9th. (United States).
  • Mosston, M. (1968a). Physical education - no more. Unpublished manuscript. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mosston, M. (1968b). Problem solving - A problem for physical educators. Paper presented to the annual meeting of New York City Association of Physical Education Teachers, New York, NY. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mosston, M. (1969a). Inclusion and exclusion in education II. Unpublished manuscript, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mosston, M. (1969b). New models in physical education: Developmental movement and the Spectrum of styles. Paper presented to the Differential Education Project, Madison Heights, MI. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mosston, M. (1969c). Notes on the Spectrum of Teaching Styles. Paper presented to the second and third general sessions of the 1969 SAPECW conference, Memphis, TN. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mosston, M. (1972). . Teaching: From command to discovery. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. (United States).
  • Mosston, M. (1972). . Shift of decisions in the Spectrum of Teaching Styles. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mosston, M. (1975). The rationale and some assumptions concerning the Spectrum of Teaching Styles. Unpublished manuscript. (United States).
  • Mosston, M. (1981). Teaching physical education. (2nd ed.), Columbus, OH: Merrill. (United States).
  • Mosston, M. (1988). I am ready. Unpublished. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mosston, M. (1990). The 3 R’s for teachers: Reflect, refine, revitalize. Focus on Education Journal. 11-17. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mosston, M. (1991). The Spectrum of Teaching Styles- Past, present and future. Unpublished manuscript. (United States).
  • Mosston, M. (1992). Tug-o-war, no more: Meeting teaching-learning objectives using the Spectrum of Teaching Styles. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. 63(1), 27-31, 56. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (1973). The Spectrum of Teaching Styles: Rationale and description of the training program for teachers and supervisors. Center on Teaching workshop expectations. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (1976). Center on teaching: Summary of research on the Spectrum (1975-1976). Paper presented at the Spectrum Teachers and Administrators Conference, Crossroads Middle School, South Brunswick, NJ. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (1984a). From command to discovery: Toward a unified theory of teaching - An overview. Unpublished manuscript. (United States).
  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (1984b). From command to discovery: Toward a unified theory of teaching. Bulletin of the Federation Internationale Physique. 54(3/4), 5-8. (United States).
  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (1984c). From command to discovery: Toward a unified theory of teaching - Part 1. Unpublished mahttp://spectrumofteachingstyles.org/pdfs/literature/MosstonAshworth1984c_From_Command_To_Discovery.pdf" target="_blank">[View PDF]
  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (1985a). From ordering to discovering: Toward a unified teaching theory. Boletim da Federacao International de Edcacao Fisica (Belo Horizonte, Brazil). 56(4), 7-11. (United States).
  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (1985b). Toward a unified theory of teaching. Educational Leadership. 42(8), 31-34. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (1986). . Teaching physical education. (3rd ed.), Columbus, OH: Merrill. (United States).
  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (1990). . The Spectrum of Teaching Styles. From command to discovery. White Plains, NY: Longman. (United States).
  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (1993). . Spanish translation of teaching physical education. (3rd ed.), Madrid, Spain. (Spain).
  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (1994). . Teaching physical education. (4th ed.), New York: Macmillan. (United States).
  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (2002). . Teaching physical education. (5th ed.), Boston: Benjamin Cummings. (United States).
  • Mosston, M., & Ashworth, S. (2008). . Teaching physical education: First online edition. Spectrum Institute for Teaching and Learning. (United States). [E-Book Download]
  • Mosston, M., & Mueller, R. (1968). Present state and future developments. Unpublished manuscript. (United States).
  • Mosston, M., & Mueller, R. (1969). Mission, omission, and submission in physical education. Presented to the NCPEAM National Conference, Chicago, IL. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mouratidou, K., Goutza, S., & Chatzopoulos, D. (2007). Physical education and moral development: an intervention programme to promote moral reasoning through physical education in high school students. European Physical Education Review. 13(1), 41-56. (Greece).
  • Mueller, R., & Mueller, S. (1992). The Spectrum of Teaching Styles and its role in conscious and deliberate teaching. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. 63(1), 48-53. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mueller, S., & Mueller, R. (1994a). In memoriam: Muska Mosston. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. 65(8), 13. (United States). [View PDF]
  • Mueller, S., & Mueller, R. (1994b). In memoriam. International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance (ICHPERSD) Journal. XXXI(1), Fall 1994. (United States). [View PDF]
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