The learning focus of the Reciprocal Style is to develop a social interaction that reinforces the giving and receiving of immediate feedback that is guided by specific teacher-prepared criteria.
*All subject matter has content that is appropriate for the different teaching styles. Physical activities were selected to more visually convey the decision-making concept of each style.
In the anatomy of the Reciprocal Style, the role of the teacher (T) is to make all subject matter, criteria, and logistical decisions and to provide feedback to the observer. The learner’s (L) role is to work in partnership relationships. One learner is the doer who performs the task, making the nine decisions of the Practice Style, while the other learner is the observer who offers immediate and on-going feedback to the doer, using a criteria sheet designed by the teacher. At the end of the first practice, the doer and the observer switch roles—hence the name for this landmark behavior—The Reciprocal Style.
(feedback and assessment)
*The arrow represents the decision shift from the Practice Style-B to the Reciprocal Style-C.
In the Reciprocal Style, the teacher’s role is to make all subject matter, criteria, and logistical decisions and to provide feedback to the observers. The learners’ role is to work in a partner relationship. One learner is the doer who performs the task, making the nine decisions of the Practice Style, while the other learner is the observer who offers immediate and on-going feedback to the doer, using a criteria sheet designed by the teacher. At the end of the first practice set, the doer and the observer switch roles, hence the name for this landmark style. Doer 1 becomes observer 2, and observer 1 becomes doer 2.
When the Reciprocal Style is achieved, the following subject matter objectives are reached:
When the Reciprocal Style is achieved, the following behavioral objectives are reached:
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The role of the observer is to observe the practice of the doer and to offer on-going feedback about what is correct and what needs correcting. The criteria sheet offers clues to guide incorrect task performance and verbal suggestions to guide feedback comments.Enlarge
Reciprocal Style offers one-on-one and immediate (on-going) task performance information.Enlarge
Each observer becomes familiar with and uses the criteria. The criteria includes: the answers; when appropriate, the process for arriving at the answers; clues/hints for correcting errors; and possible feedback statements for the observers to say to the doer when the task is performed correctly or when there is an error.Enlarge
While the doer is working on the task, the observer is actively engaged comparing the doer's work to the criteria and offering verbal comments about task accuracy.Enlarge
Many observers (girl) take their role very seriously by covering the criteria (the answers). The teacher interacts only to the observers. If the teacher speaks to the doers, the role of the observer--to offer feedback--is usurped.Enlarge
Patience, tolerance and acceptance of performance differences are objectives inherent in a trusting reciprocal relationship.Enlarge
Many teachers complain that their students talk too much. Style-C is a charming style that gives students what they want--to talk--and it gives teachers what they want--learners who are actively engaged, talking about content, and focusing on correct content guidelines!Enlarge
Reciprocal Style offers one-on-one and immediate task performance information while supporting socialization.Enlarge
Reciprocal Style establishes partnerships with a variety of students; thus increasing student's circle of acquaintances and their attributes of patience and tolerance.Enlarge
All subject matters benefit by the decision structure of the Reciprocal Style. Task selection is critical in Style-C. The task must be difficult enough to MERIT an observer. If learners can successfully practice the task individually, it is inappropriate to use Style-C. The observers must feel that their role counts.Enlarge