The learning focus of the Inclusion Style is to provide opportunities for continued participation of all learners in the selected task, regardless of their varied skill levels. Tasks in Style E are designed with varying levels of skill difficulty so that learners can survey the options and select an entry level of difficulty. Learners may make adjustment decisions in their task level. Additionally, learners check their performance against the prepared criteria.
*All subject matter has content that is appropriate for the different teaching styles. Physical activities were selected to more visually convey the decision making concept of each style.
In the anatomy of the Inclusion Style, the role of the teacher (T) is to make all subject matter decisions, including the possible levels in the tasks, and the logistical decisions. The learner’s (L) role is to survey the available task levels, select an entry point, practice the task, make any adjustment in the task level (if necessary), and check performance against the criteria.
(feedback and assessment)
*The arrows represent the decision shifts from the Self-Check Style-D to the Inclusion Style-E.
In the Inclusion Style, the teacher’s role is to make all subject matter decisions, including the various levels of difficulty in the task, the criteria sheets for each level, and the logistical decisions. The role of the learners is to survey the available levels of difficulty in the task, select an entry point, practice the task, make an adjustment in the difficulty of the task level (if necessary), and check performance against the criteria.
While the students are engaged in the task, the teacher circulates among the students to acknowledge the students’ choices and to clarify and affirm the accuracy of the students' assessment process, and/or to redirect the learner's focus to specific performance details on the criteria. The teacher does not suggest level changes.
In this style no one is excluded, and each learner is offered the opportunity for continued participation.
When the Inclusion Style is achieved, the following subject matter objectives are reached:
When the Inclusion Style is achieved, the following behavioral objectives are reached:
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Click to enlarge. Overview. The Inclusion Style provides different levels, different degrees of difficulty (DofD) in the same task. In this wall climbing task three different factors are used to make this task less and more difficult: size, shape, and distance between footings on the climbing wall. All tasks have factors that can be manipulated to construct a gradual increase of difficulty in the task.Enlarge
Click to enlarge. Overview. Once students know the factor that makes one level more difficult than another, they can survey their choices among the options and then make an initial entry-level decision. In this style students decide the level on which to begin.Enlarge
Click to enlarge. Overview. If the entry level is not appropriate, either too difficult or not difficult enough, the student in this style may make an adjustment decision.Enlarge
Click to enlarge. Overview. Self-assessing the options within the task reinforces content and allows for level adjustments throughout the task performance.Enlarge
Click to enlarge. Overview. Throughout the performance of the task the student is engaged in self-assessment. In many tasks the criteria sheet is provided for each learner to assess the content details.Enlarge
Click to enlarge. Overview. The "slanted rope" concept permits inclusion and continued participation by students with varied levels of skill development.Enlarge
Click to enlarge. Overview. Factor analysis of content is critical for proper implementation of Style-E. Style-E is NOT different tasks for different sets of students.Enlarge
Click to enlarge. Overview. Style-E allows for continued participation; therefore, a higher practice time on task.Enlarge
Click to enlarge. Overview. High performing and low performing students particularly appreciate Style-E. In this style, the more skilled performer can challenge their performance level, and the less skilled performer can be included, actively engaged and participating in the task. Both groups are included!Enlarge
Click to enlarge. Overview. Some of the human attributes that underpin this style are tolerance of different levels of performance, empathy for the struggle some students have in learning and respectful attitudes when learning is superior. This style exposes students to diversity in skill level and to the emotional coping that accompanies gaps between differences in performance levels and differences between aspirations and reality.Enlarge
Click to enlarge. Overview. High performing learners do not begin on the maximum level; they gradually increase the content's degree of difficulty. Experts develop when gradual success is accompanied with self- motivation to become more skilled, more knowledgeable, more trained, more proficient and more of an expert.Enlarge
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Click to enlarge. Use in Society. Notice fitness, spa, and gym equipment are designed to accommodate different degrees of difficulty. In each workout the client makes a decision: Where shall I enter the task? What do I think I can accomplish today?Enlarge
Click to enlarge. Use in Society. Identifying the factors that make a task less or more difficult requires in-depth content knowledge. Every task has the capacity to be arranged on the slanted rope concept.Enlarge
Click to enlarge. Use in Society. The client makes a decision where to enter the task and, if necessary, can decide to make an adjustment. Participation leads to development.Enlarge
Click to enlarge. Use in Society. It is essential to use the Inclusion Style when participation is not up "to par" or when the student or client is unable to perform at a fluid pace or without disruptions. When there is a "problem," a gap or an injury, the Inclusion Style can assist in filling the gaps. Knowing how to reduce and increase the degree of difficulty is critical for the emotions, engagement, and improvement.Enlarge
Click to enlarge. Use in Society. The concept of the Inclusion Style occurred when Muska was on his horse patrolling the boundaries of his kibbutz around 1941. He jumped over a log that was slanted, and as he approached the log his horse, Diane, directed the height to jump. Muska stopped after the jump to look back at the log. Late that day he drew the slanted log in his journal--not know what it really meant but indicating that it was an interesting thought that desired more thinking. His Slanted Rope concept is now classic.
This style is appropriate for individual episodes in the classroom, and its concept can be applied to any and all of the other teaching styles.