Inclusion Style-E

Tasks in this style are designed with multiple entry levels of difficulty so that continuous inclusion and participation can occur. Learners survey the options, select an entry-level of difficulty, practice, adjust the level choice if necessary, and self-assesses performance against prepared criteria.


The defining characteristics of this style are inclusion and continuous participation of students in the same task. Each task is design with multiple levels of difficulty.  Providing multiple entry levels in the practice of the tasks permits learners to make a personal assessment about their performance. Learners practice from a beginning point where they can perform the task and the various levels of difficulty permit continued participation.  Additionally, learners engage in self-assessment using criteria prepared by the teacher. The teacher circulates and engages in conversation about the quality of the performance success and their level choices.

In this style no one is excluded, and each learner is offered the opportunity for continued participation.

The Anatomy

In the anatomy of the Inclusion Style, the role of the teacher (T) is to make all pre-impact decisions including the subject matter decisions, designing the different levels of difficulty in the task, the criteria sheets for each level, and the logistical decisions. While the students are engaged in the task, the teacher circulates among the students to acknowledge the students’ choices and to clarify and affirm the accuracy of the students' assessment process, and/or to redirect the learner's focus to specific performance details on the criteria. The teacher does not suggest level changes or assess the task performance but rather seeks such information from the learners.

The learner’s (L) role in the impact is to survey the available task levels, select an entry point, practice the task, make any adjustment in the entry-level (if necessary), and check performance against the criteria.

anatomy of style image

*The arrows represent the decision shifts from the Self-Check Style-D to the Inclusion Style-E.

Subject Matter Objectives

When the Inclusion Style is achieved, the following subject matter objectives are emphasized:

  • To design a range of options that provide varying content entry points for all learners in the same task
  • To accommodate individual performance differences
  • To increase content acquisition by providing opportunities for continued participation
  • To offer opportunities for content adjustment decisions
  • To increase the quality of active time-on-task
  • To reinforce the assessment sequence process
  • Others

Behavior Objectives

When the Inclusion Style is achieved, the following behavioral objectives are emphasized:

  • To experience making a decision about an entry point into a task by choosing an initial level of performance
  • To practice self-evaluation skills using a performance criterion
  • To experience making adjustment decisions that maintain continued content participation
  • To accept the reality of individual differences in performance abilities
  • To learn to deal with congruity or discrepancy between one's aspiration and the reality of one's performance
  • To practice the skills intrinsic to self-reliance
  • To practice honesty in appropriate level selection and honesty in self-evaluation
  • Others

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