Kevin Morgan

Principal Lecturer in Sport Coaching and Pedagogy

Kevin  Morgan


Cardiff Metropolitan University


United Kingdom


Morgan, K., Milton, D. & Longville J. (2019). Motivating Pupils for Learning in PE. In S. Capel and M. Whitehead (Eds.) Learning to Teach Physical Education in Secondary School (5th Ed). Routledge.


I was first introduced to the Spectrum of Teaching Styles during my undergraduate studies at the South Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education in Cardiff, Wales, UK from 1983-1987 (now Cardiff Metropolitan University) where it featured as part of the undergraduate and post graduate teacher training programmes. We were trained to teach primarily using the reproduction cluster and I taught PE in Secondary schools in the UK for a number of years using this fairly limited range of teaching styles. I started lecturing in Higher Education at Bedford PE College, UK in 1993 on the teacher training (BEd) PE programme. This programme was strongly linked to the Spectrum and specific modules were taught on how to use the full range of teaching styles in both the reproduction and production clusters in a range of physical activities. Teaching these modules strongly influenced my own delivery and opened up a whole range of teaching and learning experiences in PE that I had not previously engaged students in. As a consequence of this experience and my own interest in trying to find out the most effective ways of motivating pupils in PE lessons I embarked on a research agenda that linked motivational climate theory with teaching approaches, culminating in an MPhil. In 2000 I changed jobs and returned to Cardiff Metropolitan University to work on the PGCE PE and undergraduate Sport courses, where I continued my research agenda and completed my PhD. I maintained my interest in the Spectrum and motivational climate and one of the studies for my PhD focused specifically on the use of Spectrum teaching styles and pupils’ motivation in PE. During this time I also produced a track and field teaching resource titled ‘Athletics Challenges’ for High school pupils, which was based on the findings of my research. The Spectrum continues to challenge me in my delivery of undergraduate and post graduate PE modules and also as part of the MSc in Sport Coaching and Pedagogy at Cardiff Metropolitan, where it has the potential to advance the delivery of PE teachers and sport coaches.


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